Leiurus abdullahbayrami sp. nov. is described from Southeastern Turkey and compared with other species of the genus, in particular with L. quinquestriatus, which was previously misidentified from Turkey. The new species is readily distinguished from other members of the genus by pedipalp chela and metasomal segments that are distinctly shorter than in L. quinquestriatus; metasomal segment V has large and rounded lobes; trichobothrium db on the fixed finger of pedipalp is located between trichobothria est and esb (in L. quinquestriatus it is located between et and est). All known Turkish populations of Leiurus were examined and found to represent the new species.