A new species of scorpion, Buthoscorpio rayalensis sp. nov., is described from Andhra Pradesh, India. The new species of scorpion can be differentiated from its congeners in having the following set of morphological characters: anterior edge of carapace exhibiting very broad subtle indentation with a conspicuous epistome present medially, median eyes situated anteriorly in the ratio 1:3.1, interocular area smooth, patella anteriorly smooth and rounded, mesosomal tergites smooth, pectines 17–17, and arrangement of lateral eyes. Stenochirus jinnahii Amir, Kama-luddin et Jabbar, 2005 and S. rahmatii Amir, Kamaluddin et Jabbar, 2005 are considered Buthidae incertae sedis as their generic allocation has been erroneous.