Akrav israchanani, a relict chactoid scorpion from the famous Ayyalon Cave in Israel, is analyzed for the first time since its original description by Gershom Levy (2007). All scorpions found in this cave (20 specimens) were dead, represented by exoskeletons; they are mostly fragmented during collection, many incomplete, but extremely well preserved, and have no evidence of fossilization. Time and cause of death are unknown. Diagnostic characters described by Levy are largely confirmed, and some are further clarified. An exhaustive set of microscopic images is published, encompassing data from all best preserved specimens. Previously unpublished morphological details are illustrated such as exact pattern of trichobothria, finger dentition, structure of pectinal organs, etc. Measurements of type series are provided. Presence of mites (Acari) in the Ayyalon Cave is not confirmed: the only specimen tentatively identified as a mite proved to be a late-stage scorpion embryo found inside one of the females; it is described and illustrated. Phylogenetic placement of Akrav within Recent scorpions is discussed, and its affinity to New World Chactoidea (Superstitioniidae: Typhlochactinae) is demonstrated. Biogeographic and ecological observations are provided. Unusual structure of pedipalp fingertips is suggested to be a device for foraging on aquatic crustaceans abundant in the cave’s pool.