The complex of Parabuthus heterurus Pocock, 1897 is split into four species: P. heterurus Pocock, 1897 s. str. whose type locality and real distribution are discussed and corrected, and three herein described species, P. kabateki sp. n., P. robustus sp. n. and P. somalilandus sp. n. In the species complex of Parabuthus liosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828), P. erigavoensis sp. n. from Somaliland is described. Also described are P. mazuchi sp. n., sympatric with P. cimrmani Kovařík, 2004 and P. eritreaensis Kovařík, 2003 from Somaliland. New data are presented on the distribution of the genus Parabuthus Pocock, 1890 in the Horn of Africa, mainly in Somaliland, acquired during expeditions in 2017–2019. Information is provided about Parabuthus species from Somaliland, their taxonomy, distribution, and ecology, fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as their habitats. The hemispermatophores of P. kabateki sp. n., P. mazuchi sp. n., P. robustus sp. n. and P. somalilandus sp. n. are illustrated and described. In addition to the analyses of external morphology and hemispermatophores, we also described the karyotypes of P. kabateki sp. n., P. robustus sp. n. and P. somalilandus sp. n. All three species have karyotypes with 2n=16 and chromosomes gradually decreasing in length. Included is a key to Parabuthus Pocock, 1890 in the Horn of Africa. Parabuthus terzanii Rossi, 2017 is synonymized with Parabuthus hamar Kovařík et al., 2016 syn. n. as a junior synonym because the description dated July 2016 was in reality published/accessible in March 2017

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