This study examined the fans motivation to attend the National Football League (NFL) games and how it relates to fan identification. Data from 158 fans who attended regular season games in a Midwestern city in the United States were analyzed using regression to determine the degree to which fan identification could be explained by motivation factors. It was found that self-esteem, entertainment, escape, and eustress explained 40.1% of the variance in fan identification. Understanding that fans have different levels of identification and different types of motivations will enable sport marketers can better tailor strategies to more effectively reach target markets.
Mak, Jennifer; King, Carina; and Heo, Jinmoo. (2018). An Examination of Motivation and Identification of Football Fans. Journal of Applied Marketing Theory. 8(1), 21-27.