Paraoxonase 2 prevents the development of heart failure
Background: Mitochondrial oxidation is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in development of heart failure (HF). Paraoxonase 2 deficient (PON2-def) mitochondria are impaired in function. In this study, we tested whether PON2-def aggravates HF progression.
Methods and results: Using qPCR, immunoblotting and lactonase activity assay, we demonstrate that PON2 activity was significantly decreased in failing hearts despite increased PON2 expression. To determine the cardiac-specific function of PON2, we performed heart transplantations in which PON2-def and wild type (WT) donorhearts were implanted into WT recipient mice. Beating scores of the donor hearts, assessed at 4 weeks post-transplantation, were significantly decreased in PON2-def hearts when compared to WT donor hearts. By using a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model, we found PON2 deficiency significantly exacerbated left ventricular remodeling and cardiac fibrosis post-TAC. We further demonstrated PON2 deficiency significantly enhanced ROS generation in heart tissues post-TAC. ROS generation was measured through dihydroethidium (DHE) using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescent detector. By using neonatal cardiomyocytes treated with CoCl2to mimic hypoxia, we found PON2 deficiency dramatically increased ROS generation in the cardiomyocytes upon CoCl2treatment. In response to a short CoCl2 exposure, cell viability and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity assessed by MTT assay were significantly diminished in PON2-def cardiomyocytes compared to those in WT cardiomyocytes. PON2-def cardiomyocytes also had lower baseline SDH activity. By using adult mouse cardiomyocytes and mitochondrial ToxGlo assay, we found impaired cellular ATP generation in PON2-def cells compared to that in WT cells, suggesting that PON2 is necessary for proper mitochondrial function.
Conclusion: Our study suggests a cardioprotective role for PON2 in both experimental and human heart failure, which may be associated with the ability of PON2 to improve mitochondrial function and diminish ROS generation.
Li W, Kennedy D, Shao Z, Wang X, Kamdar AK, Weber M, Mislick K, Kiefer K, Morales R, Agatisa-Boyle B, Shih DM. Paraoxonase 2 prevents the development of heart failure. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2018;121:117-26.