Author Credentials

Jacob Miller MD Brady Reynolds MD Courtney Crain MD Hisham Keblavi MD Lynne J. Goebel MD


smoking, pregnancy, appalachia, contingency management, birth outcomes


Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Maternal and Child Health | Obstetrics and Gynecology | Primary Care | Social and Behavioral Sciences | Women's Health


This pilot study examined the feasibility of applying Contingency Management (CM), where the woman receives financial compensation for abstinence from smoking. Eleven subjects were recruited from Marshall’s OB clinic for the program. CO levels were measured daily using online video recording. Quit rates were determined at the end of pregnancy. Birth outcomes were measured at delivery. 21 pregnant smokers from Marshall’s OB clinic were used as the control group. The results demonstrated a trend toward improved rates of smoking abstinence in CM participants as compared with the control group. Our study also showed a trend towards improved birth outcomes in the CM group. However, the results were not statistically significant, and we believe a larger study in our population is warranted.