Hemoptysis is defined as expectoration of blood originating from the lower respiratory tract (i.e., below the vocal cords). Among the potential sources of bleeding from the bronchial tree are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Although pulmonary AVM and its diagnostic imaging features have been well described, less is known about bronchial AVM. This report describes an elderly man with multiple AVMs in his gastrointestinal tract who was admitted with hemoptysis and found to have AVM in his bronchial tree.
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Batarseh, Rami and Shweihat, Yousef
"Nipple Sign, A Stigmata of Recent Arteriovenous Malformation Bleed in the Bronchial Tree,"
Marshall Journal of Medicine:
4, Article 3.
Available at: https://mds.marshall.edu/mjm/vol6/iss4/3